The series of Geneva meetings did not produce any solution to the Syrian crisis, the main reason for all this is the exclusion of the most important political and military component of the Kurds.
Since 2012, 8 conferences have been held in Geneva, Switzerland. The summary and results of these meetings are summarized below.
On June 30, 2012, a working group of the United States, China, Russia, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey and the Arab League agreed in Geneva on the principles of a transitional phase, but the concerned parties involved in Syria and others disagreed on the interpretation of these principles, which did not make clear the fate of the Syrian regime where the opposition demanded to his departure.
Washington considered that the agreement gives way to the post-Assad phase, while Moscow and Beijing stressed that the determination of Assad’s fate belongs to the Syrians.
A ceasefire resolution was not reached, and one of the key factors for the failure of the first Geneva conference was the non-participation of the Syrian regime, as well as the lack of participation of the main forces that have a project to build a democratic Syria and the Kurds.
On February 10, 2014, the former international mediator, Lakhdar Brahimi, supervised these negotiations, which brought together the delegations of the regime and the opposition, and ended on 15 February 2014 to a “dead end” because of differences between the parties, most notably, the regime’s delegation insisted on putting the issue of “terrorism” high on the agenda of the negotiations, while the opposition delegation insisted on giving priority to the item on the formation of a fully empowered transitional governing body under the statement of the first Geneva conference in June 2012.
Turkish-backed opposition parties and ministers from some 40 countries attended the conference. The Kurds were excluded under pressure from Turkey.
Moscow and Washington, the sponsors of the negotiations, were unable to make progress after Brahimi said they had promised to help resolve the issues between the two delegations.
During the conference, the Kurds announced the establishment of Autonomous Administration and sent their message to negotiators in Geneva-2.
In February 2016, after the date of January 1, 2016 for the start of the third round of Geneva negotiations was agreed, the United Nations announced the postponement of the date to January 29, 2016, to be officially launched on 1 February 2016 in Geneva.
On February 3, 2016, UN envoy Stephane De Mistura announced the postponement of the negotiations until February 25, 2016, and said that the negotiations did not fail but were postponed.
These negotiations were held in conjunction with the entry of the Syrian crisis in its sixth year, but ultimately failed due to differences between the regime and the opposition, most notably differences in the implementation of paragraphs 12 and 13 of UN resolution 2,254, and the dispute over the formation of the Syrian opposition and its negotiating delegation.
During the January 8-10 conference in Riyadh, the delegates were scheduled to participate in Geneva 3, and a delegation from the Democratic Union Party was scheduled to participate, but the party was not officially invited, and the Kurds rejected individual invitations.
On February 23, 2017, the fourth round of negotiations began under the auspices of the United Nations at the headquarters of the United Nations in Geneva, and ended on 3 March 2017, attended by the delegations of the regime and the opposition, while the representatives of the Kurdish people were excluded.
The participants led by De Mistura were able to reach agreement on an agenda of four baskets.
The previous rounds did not witness a real discussion about a supposed transfer of power in Syria in light of the regime’s refusal to implement the Geneva 1 statement, especially after making significant field gains in 2016 in Aleppo and elsewhere.
On March 23, 2017, delegates of the Geneva Conference met again under the auspices of UN Special Representative Stefan De Mistura. The Syrian regime delegation and groups associated with the countries of the region participated in the conference, this time the Kurds were also excluded from the conference.
Groups linked to the countries of the region sought to change the nature of the negotiations and meet directly with the regime delegation, but the regime delegation refused to sit with these groups at the same table.
Both the regime and opposition delegations traded accusations of lack of progress in the eight-day round of negotiations.
The tour, which took place on May 16, 2017, lasted for four days, but ended according to “Mistura” at the time without any tangible progress.
De Mistura proposed the creation of a consultative mechanism to discuss technical issues related to constitutional and legal issues, a proposal rejected by the opposition, but sent a delegation that participated in two rounds of discussion on technical issues after the end of the sixth round.
The regime delegation said opposition groups had met at the table to discuss the partition of Syria.
The Kurds did not participate in all these negotiations, and the negotiations yielded no result.
Geneva – 7
The fate of the meetings held between 10-15 July 2017 was no different. The seventh round, which lasted for six days without any progress on what is known as the four baskets that constitute the main agenda of the negotiations, and the international envoy called on the Syrian opposition to unify their delegations as a prerequisite for new rounds of negotiations, as the Russians tried during this round to circumvent and evade the output of Geneva 1 which spoke of a Transitional Governing Body, which means the end of Assad’s role in the future of Syria.
The seventh round, in which the Kurds also did not participate, ended in failure.
Geneva – 8
With the liberation of al-Raqqa from ISIS mercenaries by virtue of SDF, and as world powers made sure it was inevitable to eliminate ISIS, the UN again investigated. In November 2017, the UN again called on the parties to meet at the negotiating table.
With the aim of uniting their ranks and participating in a joint delegation in the negotiations, the forces of Turkey and Qatar met the Riyadh-2 meeting, to appear as if it includes all the opposition parties.
On 28 January, the Geneva meetings began again, and the delegation of Damascus insisted on its previous position in the military resolution.
The groups that participated in a unified delegation insisted on meeting the regime delegation directly, but the regime delegation rejected this invitation.
Constitutional committee meetings continue without results
After these meetings failed to reach a conclusion, Russia began its military campaign, and the decision was made to form a constitutional drafting committee under the auspices of Turkey, Russia and Iran.
The Committee officially began its meetings on 30 October in Geneva under the auspices of the United Nations with the participation of 150 members. The meetings of the Constitutional Committees resulted in the appointment of 45 members of the mini-committee charged with drafting the Constitution, 15 of whom were representatives of the regime, 15 representatives of Turkey’s terrorist groups and 15 representing civil society organizations in Syria.
For the first time, the regime officially sat down with Turkey and Qatar-backed groups at the same table.
The Kurds have also been excluded from the constitution drafting committee. After the first round of meetings failed, the second round began on November 25, 2019.
In the second round, the regime delegation left the negotiating table after denouncing the Turkish occupation of NE, Syria.
During the civil war in Syria, nearly 400,000 people lost their lives and more than 6 million were displaced.
Terrorist groups that cause civil war in Syria have all participated in the Geneva meetings to “determine the future of Syria,” while no one has asked what the people of Syria want and want.
The Kurdish people, who managed through Autonomous Administration that includes all the peoples of NE, Syria, and made great sacrifices in the fight against terrorism, who demand the unity of Syrian territory, and demand the drafting of a constitution that guarantees the rights of all peoples, were excluded from the table of the Constitution Drafting Committee.
It is quite clear that no solution can be found in isolation from the participation of the Kurds, and that all Geneva meetings will not produce a result.